Published by Ronald F. Eustice and sponsored  by GRAY*STAR Inc.
December 2016
Food Irradiation Update is published monthly by Ronald F. Eustice, a food quality & safety assurance consultant based in Tucson, Arizona. He can be reached at:
and at 612.202.1016
As 2016 comes to a close, we can reflect upon the success we have had in expanding consumption of food that has been irradiated. New irradiation facilities are being constructed in many countries, especially where huge amounts of food spoil before they reach the public. Irradiation is a multi-purpose technology that increases food safety by killing dangerous bacteria, eliminating harmful pests, extending shelf life and more. Consumer acceptance and awareness is increasing rapidly. One of the most common questions that I hear is "if this technology is so good, why isn't it used more often?" The volume of irradiated food is increasing ever day as more retailers and consumers realize that irradiated food is rapidly becoming "main stream." We're seeing positive movement in meat, seafood and produce among other things. We look forward to a great year for food irradiation.  Stay tuned. Happy Holidays! 
Featured Article: Food Irradiation Highlights of 2016; By Ronald F. Eustice
The year 2016 was a good year for food irradiation. Here is a recap of some of the most important events that made it an exciting year.
Australian mango growers and exporters made plans to export between 100 and 200 tonnes of mangoes to the US. This compared to the first export season in February 2015, which saw 5.5 tonnes of mangoes shipped to the US from two growers.  The Northern Territory of Australia had about 20 growers approved for fruit export, compared to two in 2015.
Steritech, an Australia-based irradiation company received approval in 2015 from the USDA to begin export of tropical fruit to the USA. The list of fruits and vegetables being irradiated in Australia is impressive and expanding rapidly.
Australian Food Regulators FSANZ, have now approved 23 commodities for irradiation; tomato, capsicum, table grape, cherry, strawberry, zucchini, nectarine, rock melon, honeydew, apricot, apple, peach, plum and tropical fruits (mango, lychee, papaya), for both the Australian domestic and New Zealand market. 
Australia is exporting to New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and the United States. Some irradiated produce has also been transported between Australian states to meet intra-state phytosanitary protocols. Over 2000 metric tonnes of irradiated Australian produce were marketed in 2014/15. The volume has increased steadily and is double what is was in 2011/12. Three fourths of irradiated produce is mango (1480 tonnes) with tomatoes in second place at 430 tones.
South Africa exported its first air shipment of litchis to the United States. South Africa's Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries views this achievement as one of the major contributions on the country's initiative of expanding export markets, positioning South Africa as one of the significant exporters in the world.This was the first time the South African litchi sector has supplied the U.S. market, following long negotiations for market access. One of the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) includes irradiation treatment to eliminate certain pests and insects. A total of 54 ton of South African lychees reached US consumers in 2015.
Gateway America, Gulfport, Mississippi is on a "roll"! Gateway has become a major player in food irradiation. They irradiate a large variety of food items including ground beef, oysters, fruits and other products. Gateway already irradiates ground beef for major suppliers and is having serious discussions with two processors. Major retailers are expanding their  lines of irradiated meat and produce. Irradiation of fresh oysters continued to move forward at Gateway America in Gulfport, Mississippi. With Vibrio cases on the rise, irradiation appears more attractive each day. Gateway America irradiates fresh oysters for several large seafood companies. On the international scene, Gateway has worked closely with several countries including Peru and Grenada to help them gain US market access through Framework Equivalency Agreements (FEWP) with USDA/APHIS. Currently Gateway is helping Colombia gain a foothold in the US market. Mexican fruit importers are also working with Gateway to expand their rapidly growing business.
The U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) lifted import restrictions on a range of crops grown in the Dominican Republic, provided they meet certain pest mitigation standards including irradiation. The list includes clementines, grapes, grapefruit, lemons, litchis, longans, sapote, mandarins, mangoes, oranges, papayas, peppers, pomelos, tangelos, tangerines, tomatoes and cactus fruit.
Guyana was added to the USDA Framework Equivalency Work Plan (FEWP) list of cooperating countries.  Grenada will be irradiating June plums for access to the US market. As of 2016, thirteen countries have signed the agreement. These include Australia, Dominican Republic, Guyana, India, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam.
The Sixth Annual Phytosanitary Irradiation Conference was held March 23-24 at Chapman University, Orange, California.  More than 100 participants from about 20 countries attended the three-day conference. The agenda and Power Point presentations can be viewed at . You can access the presentations by clicking on the title of the presentations in the agenda section.
Mexican fresh fig exporters became eligible to ship their fruit to the continental U.S., under the condition the produce is treated with irradiation. 
The U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced the decision March 30. Mexico now has eleven items approved to enter the US market. Irradiation is mandatory on several of the items including guavas, chile manzano, sweet lime and figs.
The Government of India cleared several commodities under new Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food & Allied Products) Rules 2012 in Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 for preservation through irradiation. 
A major facility in the Government sector catering to irradiation of fresh horticultural produce is the KRUSHAK facility at Lasalgaon, Nashik District, Maharashtra State, India. The facility has been used for irradiating mangoes for export to USA since 2007. The radiation processing plant at Vashi, Navi Mumbai, under the Department of Atomic Energy, has been processing spices and dry ingredients for microbial decontamination since the year 2000.
Sydney, Australia-based ESA Accountants Pty Ltd. is upgrading Peru's irradiation infrastructure with the aim of certifying a Lima plant for U.S.-bound produce exports in 2017.
A Peruvian company, Inmune S.A. has operated with a mainly domestic focus since its inception in 1995, but because of its close proximity to the Port of Callao and Lima International Airport, saw an opportunity and acquired the facility in 2014.
Executive president William Gal'lino said the investment plan followed three stages: an upgrade to the existing Santa Anita facility for US$800,000 and the construction of a twin Santa Anita II plant for US$2.8 million, as well as a US$3 million investment in an irradiation plant in northern Peru. The Santa Anita 1 plant has been operating for 21 years with three uninterrupted shifts in the city of Lima, which is the center of the country's economic activity with almost 10 million inhabitants; a third of Peru's population. Gal'lino said the plant requires being reorganized and implemented so that it adequately attends to the domestic market, and can be certified for 2017 to support agri-growers in their exports, mainly to the North American market. This certification would allow agri-exports to be irradiated in Peru instead of being irradiated in the country of destination. The fresh products scheduled for irradiation for the Peruvian domestic market are potatoes, beans, citrus and pineapples and for the export market fresh asparagus, grapes, mangoes, avocados, mandarins, pomegranates, figs, peppers, blueberries, peas, cherimoyas, vegetables and other products destined for the North American and European markets.
The government of Bolivia concluded a $300 million deal with Rosatom, Russia's state-owned nuclear engineer, to build a research complex that will lay the technical basis for the country's future civil nuclear industry.
Maharastra-based Kay-Bee Exports became the first Indian company to export the pomegranates to the North American market. A year-round supply of fresh Indian pomegranates looks set to provide Kay Bee Exports with a new window of opportunity in the US.
India is the only country in the world with 365-day availability and fresh pomegranate harvest. Irradiation is a mandatory protocol.
Australia commenced work on granting market access for fresh dragon fruit from Vietnam into Australia.
Australia is also considering other Vietnamese fruits.
Lychee was the first Vietnamese fruit shipped to Australia, starting May 2015. Lychee exports reached 28 tons at the end of 2015.   Mango has been accessed since November and the first shipment is expected soon. 
In 2014, Vietnam became the first country to export dragon fruit to New Zealand, after the two countries agreed on procedures to ensure safety requirements. The procedures include irradiation.
In 2015, Vietnam sold over 200 tons of rambutan, 357 tons of lychee and nearly 2,000 tons of dragon fruits to the U.S as well as some longan. A year earlier, 2.1 tons of lychees were taken straight from Noi Bai, Vietnam International Airport to Ho Chi Minh City for irradiation and quality quarantine before being exported to the US. In the future, Vietnam expects to export about 3,000 metric tons of irradiated mangoes to the U.S. annually. Read more here ...
The Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" and The Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria signed a Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of nuclear energy for peaceful uses in May 2016. The cooperation will include health products as well as irradiation of food and seems to be part of a continuing effort to increase worldwide presence in the field of nuclear energy. Read more here ...
Canada's federal government announced plans to open discussion concerning adding fresh and frozen raw ground beef to its list of foods that have been approved for irradiation.  The proposed amendments would "allow, but not require" packers and processors to use irradiation as "a tool to improve the safety of their products." Like all other irradiated foods, irradiated ground beef would need to be clearly labeled as irradiated, according to the labeling requirements set out in regulations. The new rules would also set a maximum absorbed dose for the products, as well as the allowable radiation source for the intended purpose. In 2012, Canada suffered its biggest ever-E. coli outbreak when 18 people were infected after consuming beef products from an XL Foods Inc. plant in Alberta. This, in turn, triggered the largest beef recall in Canadian history. A subsequent report on the incident insisted that beef irradiation should be approved and used widely to prevent more of these recalls from happening again. Read more here ...
The first shipment of 1.2 tonnes of mangoes and pomegranates produced at Innova Agri Bio Park was exported from India to the US in June.
The Park is a Public Private Partnership (PPP) project supported by the Central Ministry of Food Processing Industries and Food Karnataka Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle under the state government. The shipment contained 250 boxes of mangoes and 50 boxes of pomegranates under the brand 'FarmRus.' All were irradiated as a mandatory USDA requirement. Read more here ...
In June, the U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) officially opened the doors for imports of Peruvian pomegranates and figs. We expect significant irradiation of Peruvian figs and pomegranates in 2017. Read more ...
Indian mangoes set sail for American shores. For the first time, mangoes were transported by sea instead of by air. A consignment of 13 tonnes of the Kesar, Totapuri and Dalambiya varieties was loaded onto a ship in July and reached New York 19 days later. The mangoes were packed in controlled atmosphere (CA) containers, and had been irradiated at Vashi in Navi Mumbai and at Lasalgaon in Nashik - a condition mandated by the USDA. Read more here ...
The first shipment was 257 kilograms of Mexican fresh figs that were irradiated arrived in the US. The first figs sent came from the Mexican states of Morelos and Puebla. Following the first shipment, a second load of 628 kilograms of fresh figs was sent.
In July 2015, there were 200 hectares of fig production in Mexico, mostly in Morelos, Baja California Sur, Puebla and Hidalgo. That acreage could increase should Mexican exporters find success with subsequent shipments. Current national production is estimated at just over 6,000 tonnes of figs valued at about US$3 million. 
Rosatom State Corp of Russia picked up a 51 per cent stake in Tamil Nadu-based Gamma Tech India Private Ltd. to jointly implement a project that aims to set up a network of radiation sterilization centers across India. The centers to be developed by Rusatom Overseas JSC will offer food decontamination and sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation, including sterilization of medical products such as latex gloves, decontamination of fruit, berries and other products exported from India to developed countries.
The centers will be constructed in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The pilot center will be built in Tamil Nadu. This is the first such major intervention by a foreign government nuclear utility in India, one of the largest food producers in the world with about 600 million tonnes of food products generated every year. Read more here ...
USDA APHIS published a proposed rule to allow the importation of fresh mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) from Vietnam into the continental United States. The proposed rule was available for review and comment beginning August 3, 2016.  The rule proposes that Vietnamese mango fruit can be safely imported into the continental United States if it meets several conditions. Under the proposal, the fruit would be required to be grown in an orchard, which has been treated for pests, or certified as pest-free.  Shipments will also need to be treated with irradiation.
The first shipment of mangoes from Australia's Northern Territory arrived in the US in September. 
The fruit was loaded at Brisbane and flown over the Pacific Ocean. About 100 tonnes of Queensland mangoes were sent last year, but now with three Top End farmers on board, the trade was expected to double. Manbulloo initially sent 240 cartons of the Kensington Pride variety to the Produce Marketing Association's conference held in Florida in October. Read more here ...
India and Russia signed a pact to set up 25 integrated infrastructure centers for irradiation treatment of perishable food items to improve shelf life and cut post-harvest losses. At least 7 centers will be set up in Maharashtra, with the first center near Shirdi to be ready in 2017. Perishable items ranging from flowers to fish will be treated there on a commercial scale.
The agreement was signed between Russia's United Innovation Corporation (UIC) - a subsidiary of Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation - and Hindustan Agro Co-op Ltd on the sidelines of the BRICS Business Forum.
As part of the agreement, a joint venture will be formed for this purpose. Plans are to develop about 25 integrated centers across the country, of which seven of them in Maharashtra in the first phase," Hindustan Agro Co-op Ltd Chairman Bharat Dhokani Patil told reporters. The 7 centers are likely to be established in Sindhurg, Satara, Solapur, JNPT, Jalana, Napur and Pune in the first phase. Read more ...
The use of this irradiation technology will make it possible to reduce the loss of onions in India, which currently go bad because of germination and inadequate storage, by 42,000 tons per year on average, as well as to reduce grain losses from 15 per cent to 35 per cent per year. Currently twenty-two countries, including the UK, France, Germany, Finland, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea and India, are using about 515 radiation plants based on Russian technologies. Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation plans to expand the use of food irradiation to the UAE, the Republic of Mauritius and Malaysia.
United Innovation Corporation (UIC), a subsidiary of Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom, has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Brazilian consultancy CK3 for the development, construction and operation of an irradiation centre in Brazil. The document was signed by the director-generals of the two companies, respectively, Denis Cherednichenko and Renato Cherkezian.

Rosatom said the MOU establishes cooperation between the parties and involves the coordination of efforts to implement and operate projects for an irradiation centre in Brazil, using technologies based on the use of electron accelerators for sterilization of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and healthcare products, among others applications. Read more here ...

The first ever shipment of Australian litchis to the U.S. market is likely to take place this season, despite export protocols being received a couple of years ago.  Australian Lychee Growers Association president Derek Foley said the registration of chemicals in both countries had been the industry's final hurdle. The issue has now been resolved. USDA also requires that Australian lychees be irradiated.
Read more here ....

There are two irradiation facilities operating in Hawaii; Pa'ina Hawaii and Hawaii Pride. The number one irradiated export crop is purple sweet potato. Hawaii also irradiates longan, rambutan, sweet basil, dragon fruit, papaya, curry leaf, banana, and mango (volumes roughly in the order). All irradiated produce in the past has been sent to the U.S mainland. Hawaii will soon be sending their first irradiated papayas to New Zealand. In 2015, more than 6,000 tons (14,000,000 pounds) of produce were irradiated. The volume has grown substantially in recent years.

The Zambian Government signed agreements with Russia's state nuclear agency Rosatom to lay the groundwork to build nuclear power plants in Zambia. A press release states that the cooperation will among other things develop a strategy which will produce electricity, produce isotopes for diagnosis, cancer treatment and irradiation of food.
MYTH of the MONTH: "Talk is Cheap!" By Russell Stein
"Talk is Cheap!"

FALSE.  Not so cheap.  There always has been a lot of discussion about food irradiation.  More time is spent talking about food irradiation than irradiating food.  
The next time you are at a conference or forum discussing any aspect of food irradiation, look around and count the number of attendees.  Most likely, during the meeting, there are more people sitting in that room than there are people actively irradiating food in the whole country where the meeting is taking place.
We talk about what we might irradiate in the future.  Why don't we talk about what we are irradiating and can irradiate right now?  Today?  Tomorrow?  Next Tuesday? Right now, food is being irradiated for various purposes around the world.  ...perhaps only a short distance away from where you are reading this. 
If you want something irradiated, send it to a commercial service irradiation facility.  If you want a lot of something irradiated, consider purchasing an irradiator yourself.  Both options exist.  Right Now! For many food products, utilizing various irradiation processes, the commercial path is clear.
Often the discussions are about researching new processes using irradiation.  Research is the first step for new applications of irradiation technology.  Research can, and must, be continued.  However, we should also be taking advantage of past research that has already cleared the path to commercialization.
Similarly we need ongoing discussions with government regulators to assure that foods currently being irradiated are compliant.  And, and we must encourage government officials to move forward with approvals for more food products and processes that have been determined safe.  Government oversight must be continued to keep the commercial path clear and credible.
Sometimes there are discussions involving the actual experiences of people having their products irradiated or the experiences of the people irradiating the product.  These are valuable because they provide a map of the path to commercialization.  Unfortunately, these discussions are rare because too often those with the knowledge are too busy irradiating actual product to attend the meeting and their comments are often restricted for proprietary reasons

Good path.  Good discussions.  But wait, there's more!  The "more" is the greatest hurdle in the path to commercialization. Commercial irradiation processing already exists.  There is more discussion on "new and improved" irradiation technologies than discussions on commercialized technology.  Although there will always be improvements with any commercial process, spending all of our time, money and effort on the "future" will not accomplish anything in the present. Too many projects, to commercialize food irradiation, have failed to even begin because they were waiting on an unproven, "new technology".  If these projects had utilized existing technology and existing resources, more foods would currently be irradiated.    
The more we talk, the less food we irradiate.  Words do not kill pathogens, irradiation does. Talk is expensive.
Russell Stein 
Also in the News: Seventh Annual Chapman Phytosanitary Conference (March 21-22, 2016):
Registration is now open for the 2017 Phytosanitary Irradiation Forum.  Please feel free to share this notice with anyone you think might be interested. 
Many thanks to Gold sponsor, Mevex, silver sponsors, Steritech and CGN Dasheng, and Bronze sponsor, IBA, for supporting this forum.   We look forward to seeing you at Chapman in March. Sponsored by Chapman University, the USDA and the FAO/IAEC. Registration is $100.

First-ever Australia lychee shipment to US; Fresh Fruit Portal (November 24, 2016):
Australia is gearing up to ship irradiated lychees to the USA.
The first ever shipment of Australian lithcis to the U.S. market is likely to take place this season, despite export protocols being received a couple of years ago. 

Australian Lychee Growers Association president Derek Foley told the registration of chemicals in both countries had been the industry's final hurdle. {The lychees will be irradiated}.

"We've had the protocol for about two years now - us and the mango industry were coupled together - but our biggest single issue has been the chemicals registered for us," he said. "There's a different set of chemicals registered in the U.S. because they've got their own market in Florida, and lining up those chemicals has been the issue."

However, Foley said the problems had been resolved this year. In May, U.S. authorities registered an insecticide that had been used in Australia for mite control, and in early November the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) registered a pesticide called Switch used to combat pepper spot.

"So we're finally getting there and there's a very good chance we will get fruit into the U.S. this year with those two aspects tidied up. We live in hope," he said.
All Australian litchi exports are all made via airfreight due to the tropical fruit's high perishability, and the industry has irradiation protocols for the U.S.

In terms of market prospects, Foley said the litchi sector would likely follow along a similar path to the mango industry and build up volumes gradually. "We'll start off slowly gauging the reaction. There's lots of negotiating with things like prices - that's what makes it worthwhile," he said, adding the exchange rate was 'quite favorable' for shippers.

He highlighted there was a lot of enthusiasm in the U.S. for the fruit. "We have a commercial partner in the Melissa Group, and they know their own home market extremely well and they're very excited about it, but also a bit frustrated they can't get any fruit yet," he said.

"They're of the opinion that this is something worthwhile doing - the mango experience has been pretty good so far - but it's more the frustration of not getting any fruit that's upsetting at the moment, so it's quite exciting that it seems it might well happen this year.

"Export markets are always a moving target with exchange rates and what area of the market we can slot into to obtain the price we need, so that aspect's a bit of a work in process."

Looking at this season, Foley said harvest had already begun in the northern regions and would progressively move further down the country toward New South Wales and run through February. He said there were 'reasonable expectations' for this season, but weather-related issues had resulted in a light crop in some areas.

"It's not going to be a record-breaking season. Especially in the wet tropics it's a bit patchy in as much as we had a fairly warm winter and a fair bit of rain, which is not good for inducing flowers and fruit set. So it's a bit light." he said. "In the Table Lands as well it's a bit patchy, but a crop will come out of it alright."

Foley said around 3,000 metric tons (MT) of fruit would likely be produced this year, and around 15% is typically exported. Fruit quality is good, although he said rain in the next few weeks would be ideal.

Labor issues are also of concern to growers, especially given the proposed tax on backpackers who work on Australian farms. "The backpacker tax is said to be 19%, this has not yet gone through parliament, the opposition is now putting a bill forward to reduce it to 10%. This will no doubt be defeated on party lines," he said.
"The uncertainty of this piece of legislation is of concern to growers, however at this point nothing has actually changed as far as the tax is concerned. Labour shortages should not occur but petty politicking does little for our international reputation."
Zambia and Russia cooperate to expand use of irradiation; UKZambia (December 7, 2016):
Zambia government officials sign agreement to set up irradiation facilities in cooperation with Russia

LUSAKA:The Zambian Government has signed agreements with Russia's statenuclear agency Rosatom to lay the groundwork to build nuclear power plants in Zambia.

Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation, is a state corporation in Russia, established in 2007 and is the regulatory body of the Russian nuclear complex.

The three Memorandum of Understanding and one project development agreement with Russia signifies the commencement of the process to develop capacity to implement nuclear science in Zambia.

The cooperation will among other things develop a strategy for nuclear plant within 10 to 15 years which will produce at least two Giga watts of electricity, product isotopes for diagnosis, cancer treatment and irradiation of food.

The agreement paves way for the Russian Federation to assist Zambia with the development of policies, programs, institutions and capacity strengthening to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purpose over a 10 to 15-year horizon.
Rosatom Deputy Director General Nikolay Spassky disclosed that in the MoUs signed, the Russian federation will assist Zambia construct a centre for nuclear science and technology that will consist of nuclear installations.

Mr. Spassky also called on Zambians to remove myths about nuclear energy saying projects of such magnitude need support from all citizens by creating public confidence. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services Permanent Secretary Godfrey Malama who signed one of the agreements said government expects communication agents to effectively convey messages that will positively impact on citizens for the successful development of the nuclear program.

The First Memorandum of Understanding signed between the ministry of Higher Education and Rosatom on cooperation in training and skills development in the fields of nuclear, will allow Russian Federation assist Zambia in developing an integrated country human resource plan for personnel for nuclear power plant.
Meanwhile, Secretary to the Cabinet Rowland Msiska said the development turns into actuality the pronouncement by President Edgar Lungu during the opening of Parliament that his administration will pursue nuclear technology as part of a diversified sustainable energy mix to power Zambia's economy.
Russia and Brazil plan irradiation center; (December 5, 2016): 
United Innovation Corporation (UIC), a subsidiary of Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom, has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Brazilian consultancy CK3 for the development, construction and operation of an irradiation centre in Brazil. The document was signed by the director-generals of the two companies, respectively, Denis Cherednichenko and Renato Cherkezian.

Rosatom said the MOU establishes cooperation between the parties and involves the coordination of efforts to implement and operate projects for an irradiation centre in Brazil, using technologies based on the use of electron accelerators for sterilization of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and healthcare products, among others applications.

The project will combine Russia's experience in radiation technology and the marketing experience of CK3. "We see great potential in the Brazilian market in the field of medical products sterilization by means of irradiation technologies," Cherednichenko said. "The use of irradiation technologies in the Brazilian health area can significantly improve the safety and quality of goods and services. 

Hermetically packaged medical products can be effectively sterilized, which reduces the risk of contamination in the production phase. Products treated with the radiation sterilization method will also increase the export potential of Brazilian companies engaged in the production of medical goods", he said.

The "fundamental difference" in Rosatom's proposals in radiation sterilization, he added, is its offer to create a "turnkey centre". He said: "We do not only create a project and equip the irradiation centre, but also train employees and provide services."

Rodrigo Cherkezian, CK3's director for investor relations, said the company had been studying the irradiation market for some time, noting that there had been little investment in Brazil in this sector. "We firmly believe that after lots of negotiations we have found the right partner because Rosatom has advanced technologies in this field and at the same time has a well-recognized international presence. The complementary competencies of this union allow us to have an aggressive entry strategy for this market," he said.

UIC was established as a Rosatom subsidiary in 2011. According to the statement, UIC works on: integrated solutions for nuclear medicine; multi-purpose irradiation centres in the environmental sector, including the management and treatment of hazardous medical and solid household waste; a comprehensive solution to water treatment problems; and the deployment of other possible radiation technology applications.

Link to article ... is an excellent source of information on food irradiation.

Food Irradiation Update is published by Ronald F. Eustice and sent to you through the sponsorship of GRAY*STAR, Inc., the manufacturer of the Genesis Irradiator. 
Food irradiation is a cold pasteurization process that will do for meats, produce, and other foods what thermal pasteurization did for milk decades ago.
Ronald F. Eustice, Consultant
Phone: 612.202.1016